The Great Indian Plain and Regional Division of Great Plain In India

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The Great Indian Plain

The Great Indian Plain
To the South Himalayas and north of peninsula lies the great plain of north India. It is an aggradational plain formed mainly by the work of three rivers system, the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. This is the largest alluvial tract of the world, extending for a length of 3200 km and width varies between 150 to 300 km

Regional Divisions of Great Plain of India

On the basis of regional divisions of great Indian plains can be divided into four parts
1.    Rajasthan:
plain also known as Thar or Great Indian desert, which covers Western Rajasthan and the adjoining part of Pakistan.
2.    Punjab –Haryana plain: Great Indian desert gives way to the fertile plains of Punjab and Haryana towards East and North-East. Its Eastern boundary in Haryana is formed by Yamuna River. Part of the plain shows a flat to slightly convex plantation controlled by sub-surface Delhi- Aravalli ridge.
Despositional process by the rivers continuing since long, has united these doabs However, this mass of alluvium is broken by bluffs, locally known as Dhayas. Khaddar belt, also known as bet lands, is prone to flooding but agriculturally it is very valuable and in flooding but agriculturally it is very valuable and in flooding intermittent, short streams found in the Northern edge of plain. The part of the plain, formed as a result of alluvial deposits by five rivers, the Sutlej, the Beas, The Ravi, the Chenab and the Jhelum, is known as the Punjab plain- the land of five rivers. It is primarily made up of Doabs- From East to West these doabs are as under.
Bist- Jalandhar Doab, lying between the Beas and the Sutlej
Bari Doab, between the Ravi and Chenab
Rechna Doab, between the Ravi and Chenab
Chaj Doab, between the Chenab and the Jhelum
Sindhu Sagar Doab, between the Jhelum- Chenab and the Indus (presently in Pakistan)
3. Ganga Plain: This is the largest unit of Great Plains of India. Depending upon its geological variations, this plain can be further sub-divided into the following three divisions.
(i)    Upper Ganga plain Compacting the upper part of Ganga Plain, this plain is delimited by 300m contour in Shiwalik in the North, the peninsular body in the South and course of Yamuna river in the west and 100m contour in East. The gradient is comparatively steeper in the north. Sandy stretches locally known as Bhurs, are found in this plain.
(ii)    Middle Ganga Plain To the East of Upper Ganga plain, lies middle Ganga plain occupying Eastern part of Utter Pradesh and Bihar. This plain is drained by Ghaghara, Gandak and Koshi rivers. Major unit of this plain are Ganga-Ghaghara doab, Ghaghara-Gandak doab and Gandak-Koshi doab (Mithila plain).
(iii)     Lower Ganga Plain some districts of Bihar and whole of west Bengal are part of this plain. The Northern part of this plain has been formed by sediment deposited by Tista, Jaldaka and Torsa. Besides, this area is marked by Drawn and Barren plains, a tract of old alluvium between host-Mahananda corridor in the West and river Sankosh in the East. 
(iv)    Brahmaputra Plain Western boundary of these plains is formed by Indo-Bangladesh border as well as boundary of lower Ganga plain. The Brahmaputra river enters this plain near Sadiya and flows further to Bangladesh after turning south wards near Dhubri. There are large marshy tracts in this region and Southern tributaries of Brahmaputra also have meandering course and there are good number of wills and oxbow lakes.

Other Divisions of Plains

The Great plains may be divided into a number of smaller units on the basis of the characteristics of the alluvium, surface gradient, drainage channels and regional traits.
Bhabar The rives, after descending from the mountains deposit pebbles In a narrow belt of about8 to 16 km in width lying parallel to the slopes of Shiwalik from the India to the Tista. All the streams disappear in this Bhabar belt. Only big rivers are seen flowing over the Surface in this area. Bhabar plains are not suitable for cultivation.
Terai it lies to the South of the Bhabar belt and runs parallel to it about 20 to 30 km wide. The under ground streams of Bhabar belt and rivers remerge and create a wet, swampy and marshy region which is prone to malaria and kalazar. It was thickly forested region with full of wild life. But forests have been cleared to grow sugarcane, rice, and wheat and to settle migrants from Pakistan after partition.
Bhangar The largest part of the Northern plain is formed of older alluvium. They lie above the flood plain of rivers and presents a terrace like feature. This part is known as Bhangar. The soil is of dark colour and contains the nodules of impure calcium carbonate locally known as Khankar.
Khadar the Newer, younger deposits of the flood plains are called Khadar. They are renewed almost every year and so are fertile, thus, ideal for intensive agriculture. The Soil is light coloured and poor in calcareous matter.
Delta Plains Delta plains are the part of lower Gangetic plains. Delta Plains covers an area of 1.86 sq km. Generally it is considered as an extension of Khadar plain. It mainly consists of old mud, new mud marsh. Up land area is locally known as chars and marshy land as bills. Large part of the coastal deltas is covered by thick impenetrable tidal forests called Sunder-bans.
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The Great Indian Plain and Regional Division of Great Plain In India
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