Tamil, Sangam, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam Literature About Indian History


Dravidian Languages

The four languages Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam developed their own literature. Tamil being the oldest of these languages began to be written earlier, leading to the production of the Sangam literature the oldest literature in Tamil.

Telugu Literature

The Vijayanagara period was the golden age of the Telugu literature. Nachana Somanatha, a court poet of Bukka I, produced a poetical work titled Uttaraharivamsamu. Krishnadevaraya (1509-1529), the greatest of the Vijayanagara Emperors, was a poet of great merit. His work Amukta Malyada is regarded as an excellent prabandha in Telugu literature. There were Eight Telugu literary luminaries, popularly known as the Ashtadiggajas.
Dhurjati, a devotee of Shiva, composed two political works of great merit known as Kalahateeswara Mahatmayam and Kalahasteeswara Satakam. Ramakrishna was the author of Panduranga Mahatmayam, which was considered one of the greatest poetical works of Telugu literature. Ramarajabhushana was the author of Vasucharitram. He was also known as Bhattumurti. 

Kannada Literature

Kannada language developed fully after the AD 10th century. The earliest known literary work in Kannada is Kavirajamang written by the Rashtrakuta king Nripatunga Amoghavarsha I. Pampa, known as the father of Kannada wrote his great poetic works Adi Purana and Vikramarjiva Vijaya in the AD 10th century. Madhawa wrote Dharmanathapurana on the 15th Tirthankara. Another Jaina scholar, uritta VIlasa, wrote Dharama Parikshe.
The Sanskrit works of the period include Yadavabhyudayam by Vendanta Desika and Parasara Smriti Vyakhya of Madhavacharya. The other eminent poet of this period was the great Sarvajna, popularly known as the people’s poet. His aphoristic tripadi (three lined) compositions serve as a source of wisdom and ethics. A special mention may be made of Honnamma. Perhaps the first outstanding poetess in Kannada. Her Hadibadeya Dharama (Duty of a devout wife) is a compendium of ethics.

Malayalam Literature

Malayalam is spoken in Kerala and its adjoining areas. The language of Malayalam emerged around the Ad 11th century by 15th century. Malayalam was recognized as an independent language. Bhasa Kautilya, A commentary on Arthashastra and Kakasandisan are two great works. Rama Panikkar and Ramanujan Ezhuthachan are well known authors of Malayalam literature.

Tamil or Sangam Literature

The Sangam literature is a collection of long and short poems composed by various poets in praise of numerous heroes and heroines. They are secular in nature and are of a very high quality. Three such Sangam were held. The poem collected in the first Sangam has been lost. In the Second Sangam, about 2000 poems have been collected. The contributions of Tamil saints like Thiruvalluvar who wrote Kural, which has been translated into many languages, are noteworthy.
There are about 30000 lines of poetry, which are arranged in eight anthologies called Ettuttokoi. There are two main groups the Patinenkil Kanakku (the eighteen lower collections) and Pattupattu 9the ten songs). The former is generally assumed to be older than the latter and considered to be of more historical significance.
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Tamil, Sangam, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam Literature About Indian History
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