Sessions of Parliament in India
The President from time to time summons each house of Parliament to meet. But, the maximum gap between two sessions of parliament cannot be more than 6 months.
The Presiding Officers (Speaker or Chairman) declares the house adjourned sine die, when the business of a session is completed. Within the next few days, the President issues a notification for Prorogation of the Session. It terminates the session of the house.
A Session of Parliament can be terminated by adjournment or adjournment sine die or prorogation or dissolution (in the case of the Lok Sabha). An adjournment suspends the work in a sitting for a specified time, which may be hours, days or weeks. Adjournment sine die means terminating a sitting of Parliament for an indefinite period. It does not necessary signify the end of the session.
The Lok Sabha can be dissolved on the expiry of its tenure of 5 years or when the President decides to dissolve it. When the Lok Sabha is dissolved, all business including bills, motions, resolutions, notices, petitions etc pending before it or its committees lapse. Now elections are to be held on the dissolution of Lok Sabha.
It is the minimum number of members required to be present in the house before it can transact any business. It is one-tenth of the total number of members in each house including the Presiding Officer. It means that there must be at least 55 members present in the Lok Sabha and 25 members present in the Rajya Sabha, If any business to be conducted.
There are usually three sessions in a year,
1. The Budget session (February to May).
2. The Monsson Session (July to September)
3. The Winter Session (November to December)
During a session, the house meets every day to transact business. The period spanning between the prorogation of a house and its reassembly in a new session is called ‘recess’. However some pending bills and all pending assurances that is to be examined by the committee on Government Assurances do not lapse on the dissolution of the Lok Sabha. The Position with respect to lapsing of bills are as follows
• A bill pending in the Lok Sabha lapses.
• A bill passed by Lok Sabha but pending in Rajya Sabha lapses.
• A bill that did not pass in the both of the houses due to disagreement and if the President has notified the holding of a joint sitting before the dissolution of Lok Sabha, does not lapse.
• A bill pending in the Rajya Sabha but not passed by Lok Sabha does not lapse.
• A bill passed by the both the houses but pending assent of the President does not lapse.
• A bill passed by both Houses but returned by the President for reconsideration of Houses does not Lapse.