Northern Indian Languages and literature
A large number of people speak Hindi in its different forms that include Braj Bhasha and Avadhi (spoken in Oudh region), Bhojpuri, Magadhi and Maithili (spoken around Mithila) and Rajasthani and Khadi Boli (spoken around Delhi). Rajasthan is another variant or dialect of Hindi. This classification has been made on the basis of literature produced by great poets over a length of time. Thus, the language used by Tulsidas in the Ramacharitamanasa is called Avadhi and the one used by vidyapati has been termed as Maithili. Hindi, as we know it today, is called Khari Boli.Though, Khusrau has used Khari Boli in his compositions in the 13th century. Its extensive use in literature began only in the 19th century. The language also shows influence of Urdu.
Urdu emerged as an independent language towards the end of the AD 4th century. Arabic and Persian were introduced in India with the coming of the Turks and the Mongols. Persian remained the court language for many centuries. Urdu becomes more popular in the early 18th century. People even wrote accounts of later Mughals in Urdu. Gradually, it achieved a status, where literature both poetry and prose started being composed in Urdu. The last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar wrote poetry in it. Some of his couplets have become quite well-known in the Hindi and Urdu Speaking areas. Urdu as a language was born out of the interaction between Hindi and Persians. Urdu was given its pride of place by a large number of poets, who have left inimitable poetry for posterity. Among other well-known poets are Ghalib, Zauq and Equal’s Urdu poetry is available in his collection called Bang-i-dara. His Sare jahan se achha Hindustan Hamara is sung and played at many of the national celebration in India. No army parade is considered complete without the army band playing the same tune. In big cities like Delhi, there are many programmers, in which famous singers are invited to sing nazams or ghazals written by famous poets like Ghalib, Maum, Bulley Shah, Waris Shah besides mani others. urdu was patronized by the Nawabas of Lucknow, who held symposiums in this language. Slowly, it became quite popular, Pakistan has adopted Urdu as its State language.
In the medieval period, Persian was adopted as the court language. Several historical accounts, administrative manuals and allied literature in this language have come down to us. The Mughal rulers were great patrons of learning and literature. Babur wrote his Tuzuk (autobiography) in Turkish language, but his grandson Akbar got it translated into Persian. Akbar patronized many scholars. He got Mahabharata translated into Persian. Jahangir’s autobiography (Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri) is also in Persian and is a unique piece of literature. Quite a fair amount of Persian literature has been produced by the Mughal courtiers.
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