Making of the constitution of the India and Indian Politics


Indian Independence Act, 1947

 – The Indian Independence Act of 1947 was an Act of the Parliament of the UK that partitoned British India into two new independent dominions of India and Pakistan. The act was formulated by the British Government after representatives of the Indian National Congress, the Muslim League and the Shik Community came to an agreement with the viceroy of India, Lord Mountbatten.
 1.Lord Mountbatten proposed a plan which was also called 3rd June Plan or Balkan Plan. it included the following principles.
>Principle of partition of India was accepted by the British Government.
>Successive Government s would be given dominion status.
>Implicit right to secede from British Commonwealth.
Indian Independance act
It was in line with the announcement made by British Prime Minister Clement Atlee, on 20th Feb. 1947. He had announced that British Government would grant complete self Government to British India by June, 1948.

Features of The Act 1947

This Act Provides that British rule in India should be over by the midnight of 15th August,1947.
This Act Provided that British India could be divided into two independent dominions of India and Pakistan. Both these dominions had right to secede from the British Commonwealth.
Office of Viceroy was abolished and each dominions, was provided a Governor-General, who was to be appointed by the British Monarch on the advice of the dominion cabinet. British Government was to have no responsibility with respect to the Government of India and Pakistan.
This Act authorised the Constituent Assemblies of both the dominions to enact laws for their own territories till the new construction was drafted and implemented. Acts passed by British Parliament were not to be applicable after 15th August, 1947. Unless extended by the law of dominion.
Office of the Secretary of States for India was abolished.British paramountcy over the Indian princely states and treaty relations with tribal areas were done away with from 15th August, 1947.It declared that Indian princely states were free to join either dominion of India or Dominion of Pakistan or may remain independent.
Governor-General of India and the provincial Governors were made nominal heads of the States, because they had to act on the advice of their respective Council of Ministers.Appointment to Civil Services and reservation of posts by the Secretary of state for India was stopped.The British Monarch wad made to remove the title of Emperor of India from the Royal style and titles.
On the midnight of 14th-15th August, 1947 a special session of the Constituent Assembly was held to effect format transfer of power.After the transfer of power in India hands, the Constituent Assembly assumed two functions
1. Formation of India Constitution.
2. A law-making body.
 Consequently, the constituent Assembly became the first parliament of India and continued to work in that capacity till the general election of 1952.On 15th August, 1947, India became independent and Lord Mountbatten became the first Governor General of free India. The first and last Indian Governor General was C Rajagopalachari.

  Making of the Constitution

 The idea of a Constitution Assembly for India was given for the first time by MN Roy in 1934. Later in 1935, congress also officially demanded a Constitution Assembly to frame the Constitution. The August offer 1940, Cripps Mission (1942), had a provision for Constitution Assembly. On the recommendation of Cabinet Mission Plan, a Constitution Assembly was set-up in Nov. 1946.
         The Constitution Assembly met for the first time in New Delhi on 9th Dec.,1946 in the Constitution Hall which is now known as the Cabinet Hall Of Parliament. The first meeting was held on 9th December, 1946, with Sachidanand Sinha, as the interim or provisional president. On 11th December, 1946 , Dr Rajendra Prasad was elected as permanent president of the Constitution Assembly.
       The Constitution Assembly took almost 3 years (2 years, 11 months and 18 days to be precise) to complete its historic task of drafting the Constitution for Independent India. During this period, it held eleven sessions covering a total of 165 days. Of these, 114 Days were spent on the consideration of the Draft Constitution.
Composition of the Constitution Assembly
  As to its composition, members of Constitution Assembly were chosen by indirect election through the members of the Provincial Legislative Assemblies, According to the scheme recommended by the Cabinet Mission. Some important arrangement were as follows
   –  The Constitution Assembly consisted of 389 members, 292 members were elected through provincial Legislative Assemblies, while 93 members were nominated by princely States. Four members represented the Chief Commissioners of the provinces of Delhi, Ajmer Marwar coorg and British Baluchistan.
Seats were divided among the provinces and Princely States and the three principal communities- Muslims, Sikhs, and General in proportion to their Population.
Each Provinces and Indian State or group of states were allotted the total number of seats proportional to their respective population roughly in the ration of one to a million.The Elections to the Constituent Assembly for 296 seats allocated to the British Indian Provinces were held in July-August 1946.
Read More: Cripps Mission
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Making of the constitution of the India and Indian Politics
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