Indus Valley Civilisation Mohenjodaro,Harappa


Mohenjodaro (Sindh)

It is a largest site of the Harappa civilisation, discovered by RD Banerjree in 1922. In Sindhi language, the word Mohenjodaro means Mound of the Dead. The Great Bath of Mohenjodaro is the most important public place, measuring 39 feet in length, 23 feet wide and 8 feet deep. Located at centre of the citadel, it is remarkable for its beautiful brickwork. Its floor is made of brunt bricks set in gypsum and mortar. The Great granary, So found was the largest building, measuring 150 feet in length and 50 feet wide. It is locate within the citadel. Other building includes an oblong multi-pillared Assembly Hall and a big rectangular building, which was served for administrative purpose.
 Excavations reveal Mohanjodaro to be inhabited by the people for a long duration of time, who kept building and rebuilding the houses, at the same location, so evidence by the remains of these buildings and a debris of about 75 feet. Regular floods disturbed Mohenjodaro, which cased deposition of soil.

The Great Bath of Mohenjodaro 

 The Great Bath of Mohenjodaro is the most important public place. It comprises of a tank situated in the Citadel mound. It is an example of Beautiful brick work and is perceived to have been used for religious bathing. Steps at either end leads to the surface. There were side rooms for changing clothes. The floor of the bath was made of brunt bricks.

The Great Granary of Mohenjodaro

        It was the largest building of Mohenjodaro, consisting of 27 blocks of brick work criss-crossed by ventilation channels.The granary was supposed to be used for storing grains.
Chanhudaro (Sindh)
 It is known as the Lanashire of India and is the only Indus city without the Citadel.
Kalibangan (Rajasthan)
    Literal Meaning of Kalibangan is Black Bangle. Kalibangan has the largest concentration of Harappa settlements and yields evidence of early Harappa period. Many houses had their own wells. There different cultural layers, those of Indus, Jhukar and Jhangar can be seen here.
Ropar (Punjab)
    First site to be  excavated after independence. Buildings were made of stone and soil. Ropar has yielded a sequence of six cultural periods or PGW, NBP, Kushana, Gupta, Medieval to the present day.
Lothal (Gujarat)
    The most unique feature of Lothal was its Dockyard, the world’s first tidal port, which served as a main sea-port for the Indus people. Lothal not only served long distance trade, but also supplied the cities on the Indus with raw material such as cotton from Gujarat and copper from Rajasthan. Lothal has been perceived by the historians tobe an outpost for sea-trade with contemporary West Asian societies, particularly Oman. It is known as the Manchester of Harappa Civilisation for its Cotton Trade.
Rakhigarhi (Haryana)
       Situated in Hisar District of Haryana . It is termed as the Provincial Capital of Harappa Civilisation. Two district cultures i.e. Early Harappa and Mature Harappa can be seen here.
Surkotada (Gujarat)
    Both citadel and the lower town were fortified with a stone wall. It provides the first actual remains of horse bones.
Banawali (Haryana)
Both Pre-Harappa and Harappa phases are found here. it is the only city with oval shaped settlements, radial streets and lack of the systematic drainage pattern.
Dholavira (Gujarat)
    It is latest Indus city discovered and one of the two largest Harappa settlements in the India, the other being Rakhigarhi in Haryana. The most unique feature of the site is its division into three sections. Two of these parts were protected by strong rectangular fortifications, with entrances through gateways. It is the warehousing settlement of Harappa Civilisation.
   Dholavira also witnessed a large open area in the settlement where public ceremonies could be held. A yet another crucial discovery was a sort of a public inscription with 10 large sized signs of the Harappa scripts, besides water reservation.
  The town at sutkagendor had a Citadel surrounded by a stone wall built for defense.  The sites, in all probability, made up for the need for a sea-port for trading purposes.
Harappa Towns associates with different Industries

Levan and Sukkur                  Stone Tools Factory
Daimabad                           Bronze industry, Bronze chariot
Lothal                            Stone tool factory
Balakot                           Factories for pearl finished goods,
Chanhudaro                        Beads Factory

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Indus Valley Civilisation Mohenjodaro,Harappa
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