Early Gujarat literature is available in the form of Bhakti songs of the 14th and 15th centuries. It still follows the old traditions, which is popular in Gujarat. Narsi Mehta’s name is the foremost in this respect.
Narmad’s poetry gave a fillip to the Gujarati literature. Saraswati Chandra, a novel by Goverdhan Ram, has become a classic. Narsi Mehta’s songs in praise of Krishna not only made him a very popular figure, but also made the Gujarati language popular.
|Indian art and culture|
Sindh was one of the important centers of the Sufis, who established khanqahs at verious places. The Sufi singers with their devotional music made the language popular.The credit for creating literature in Sindhi goes to Mirza Kalish Beg and Dewan Kauramal.
In Maharashtra, large number of local dialects were in use. Marathi grew out of these local dialects. The earliest Marathi poetry and prose is by Saint Jnaneswar (Gyaneswar) who wrote a long commentary on the Bhagavad Gita. He was the one who started the kirtan traditions in Maharashtra. He was followed by Namdev (1270-1350), Gora, Sena and Janabai. All these sang and popularized the Marathi language. Their songs are sung even today by the Varkari pilgrims on their way to Pandharpur pilgrimage.
Almost 2nd centuries later, Eknath (1533-99) came on the scene. He wrote the commentaries on the Ramayana and the Bhagavad Purana.His Songs are very popular all over Maharashtra. Then came Tukaram (1598-1650). He is supposed to be the greatest Bhakti poet of them all. Ramdas (1608-81), who was the Guru of Shivaji, is the last of these hymn writers. He was the devotee of Rama. He inspired Shivaji.
Kashmir shot into literacy prominence, when Kalhana wrote Rajatarangini in Sanskrit, but this was in the languages of the elite. For locals, Kashmiri was the popular dialect. Here, also the Bhakti movement played its role. Lal Ded, who lived in the 14th century was probably the first to sing in the Kashmiri language. She was a Shaivite mystic.
After Islam spread in this area, the Sufi influence also came to be visible. Habba Khatoon, Mahjoor, Zinda Kaul, Noor Din also known as Nund Rishi. Akhtar Mohiuddin, Sufi Ghulam Mohammed and Dina Nath Nadim wrote devotional poetry in Kashmiri. These people contributed to the growth of Kashmiri literature.
Konkani language is close to Marathi and Hindi and is written in Devanagari script. Most of the early work in Konkani has been lost. Mahabharata and Ramayana were translated in the 16th century by Krishnadas Sharam from the Marathi language.
A lot of christian literature was written in the 17th century in Konkani including Riglo Jesu Mollantum by father Joachim de Miranda and Papience Xerathini by Dona Barreto, Modern period of Konkani literature began from the 20th century on wards. Notable Konkani writers of Modern period are B Borker, M Sardesai and Reginaldo Fernandez.
Manipuri is a language of Tibetan-Burmese origin. Its literature up to the 19th century belongs mainly to the folk tradition. Example of Literature from this period are- Numit Kappa (10th century), Naotinkhon Phambal Kaba (16th-17th century), Lelthak Lekharol (17th century). Adaptations and translations of Sanskrit texts were also done in this period. From 20th century, Modern Manipuri literature started developing. Important works from this period are ‘Le Paren’ and ‘Madhabi’ by Kamal Singh, ‘Kamsa Badha’ by AD Singha etc.
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