Constitutional Arrangement of Parliament in Indian Politics

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Parliament of India

The Parliament is the legislative of the organ of the union. It occupies a per-eminent and central position in the Indian democratic political system due to adoption of the parliamentary from the Government.

Constitutional Arrangement of Parliament

Constitutional Arrangement of Parliament in Indian Politics
Article 79 to 123 in part V deals with the provisions of the Parliament.
Article 79 Provides for a Parliament for the union which shall consist of the President and two houses, to be known respectively as the Council of States and the House of the People. Though the President of India is not a member of either Houses of Parliament and does not sit in the Parliament to attend its meetings, he is an integral part of the Parliament.
President’s assent is required for any bill passed by both the Houses of Parliament, to become a law. He also performs certain functions relating to the proceedings of the Parliament e.g. he summons and prorogues both the Houses, dissolves the Lok Sabha, addresses both the Houses, issue ordinances when they are not in session and so on. In 1954 the Hindi names- Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha were adopted by the Council of Sates and Houses of people respectively.

Rajya Sabha

It is the upper Houses of the Parliament and is sometimes called the House of Elders or Second Chamber. The Government of India Act 1919, established the Second Chamber. The Government of India Act, 1935 provided directly elected members for the Council of States. The Act provided for the Council of States to be a permanent body, not subject to dissolution, with about one third of its members to be retired every third year. there life of the assembly was fixed to be for 5 years. The Rajya Sabha was first constituted on 3rd April, 1952 and first sitting was held on 13th May, 1952.

Composition of Rajya Sabha

   The maximum strength of the Rajya Sabha is fixed at 250 members. Article 80 provides the composition of the Council of States
1. The 238 are to be representatives of the States and of the Union Territories (Indirect Election).
2. The 12 members are to be nominated by the president from amongst the persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of literature, Science, Art or Social Service.
   the present strength of Rajya Sabha, however, is 245, out of which233 are representatives of the States and Union Territories of Delhi and Pondicherry and 12 are nominated by the President. Article 80 Clause (4) provides that the representatives of each States in the Council of States shall be elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assembly of the State in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote. The fourth Schedule to the Constitution provides for allocation of the seats to the States and Union Territories in Rajya Sabha. The allocation of the Seats is made on the basis of the population of each state. Consequent to the reorganisation of states and formation of new states, the number of elected seats in the Rajya Sabha allotted to States and Union Territories has change from time-to-time since 1952.

Representation of States

   The Representatives of States in the Rajya Sabha are elected by the elected members of State Legislative Assemblies.The election is held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote. The seats are allotted to the states in the Rajya Sabha on the basis of population. Hence, the number of representatives various from state to state.
Representation of Union Territories
   The Representatives of each Union Territories in the Rajya Sabha are indirectly elected by members of an Electoral College specially constituted for the purpose. This election is also held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the Single Transferable Vote. Out of the Seven Union Territories only two (Delhi and Pondicherry) have representation in Rajya Sabha.
Process for Election
   The Representatives of the States and of the Union Territories in the Rajya Sabha are elected by indirect election. The Representatives of each State and Two union Territories are elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assembly of that state and the members of the Electoral College for that Union Territory, as the case may be, in accordance with the system of proportional The Representation, by means of the single Transferable vote.
   The Electoral College for the National Capital Territory of Delhi consists of the Legislative Assembly of Delhi and that for Pondicherry consist of the elected members of the Pondicherry Legislative Assembly. Rajya Sabha is a permanent house and is not Subject to dissolution.
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Constitutional Arrangement of Parliament in Indian Politics
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