The Shakas (90 BC-AD100)
The Greeks were followed by the Shakas, who controlled a much greater part of India than the Greeks did. There were five branches of the shakas with their seats of power in different parts of india and Afghanistan. The Second branch settled in Punjab with its capital as Taxila. The third branch settled in Mathura. The fourth branch established its hold over western India, where the shakas continued to rule until the AD 4th century. The fifth branch of shakas established its power in the upper Deccan. The most famous Shaka ruler of Taxila was Maues or Moga (20BC-AD20) and that of Mathura were Bhmaka and Nahpana.
The Shakas used prestigious titles such as Rajadhiraja in addition to Maharaj. The most famous Shaka’s ruler in India was Rudhradaman I (AD 130-150). He ruled not only over Sindh, but also over a good part of Gujarat, Konkan, the Narmada valley, Malwa and Kathiawar. He is famous in history because of the repairs he undertook to improve the Sudarshana lake in the Semi-arid Zone of Kathiwar. Although, a foreigner settled in India, he issued the first ever long inscription in chaste Sanskrit the Junagadh rock inscription.
The Parthians (247BC-AD224)
The Shakas domination in North-Western India was followed by that of the Parthians and in many Ancient Indian Sanskrit texts, they are together mentioned as Shakas-Pallavas. In fact, both of them ruled over this country on parallel lines for sometime. Originally, the Parthians lived in Iran from where they moved to India. In comparison with the Greeks and Shakas, they occupied a small portion of North-Western India in the 1st century the most famous Parthians king was Gondophernes, in whose reign St Thomas is said to have come to India for the propagation of Christianity.
The kushanas (AD 45-73)
The Parthians were followed by the Kushanas, who were also called Yuehchis. The Kushanas Chief Kujula Kadphises united the various tribes of Yuehchis. We come acroos two successive dynasties of the Kushanas. The first dynasty was founded by a house of Chiefs who were called Kadphises and who ruled for 28 years from about AD 50. It had two kings. The first was Kadphises I also known as Kujula Kadphises I, who issued coins south of Hindukush mountains and laid the foundation of Kushana empire. He was Succeeded and laid the foundation of Kushana empire. He was succeeded by his son Kadphises II (Vima Kadphises), Who is Issued a large number of god coins and spread his kingdom East of the Indus.
The house of Kadphises was succeeded by that of Kanishka. Its kingdom extended the Kushana power over upper India and the lower Indus basin.