Administrative Units of Mauryan Empire

According to Buddhist traditions, Ashoka ruled for 27 years. The disintegration of the Mauryan Empire seemed to have set in immediately after Ashoka’s death. The tenth and the last of the Mauryas was Brihadratha, who was murdered by his General Pushyamitra Sunga. This was the end of Mauryan Dynasty.

Administrative Units of Mauryan Empire

The highest functionaries at the centre were called Tirthas. There was also the Mantri Parishad to assist the king in the day-to-day administration.  There was total eighteen tirthas. The Adhyaksya’s were high ranking officials nest to the Tirthas concerned mostly with economic functions and some military duties. An important development in the king’s position in Mauryan empire was the emergence of a paternal attitude towards his subject.
In Dhauli inscription (Major Rock Edict VI), Ashoka says, Savve Munisse Paja Mana (meaning, all men are my children), which shows his paternalistic attitude towards the people. The Mauryan king did not claim any divine origin yet they attempted to emphasise the connection between kinship and divine power.

Administrative Units of Mauryan Empire

The Mauryan Empire had major administrative units like the Centre and the Provinces, which had various sub-units down to the village and all came under the purview of central administration. At the centre of the structure, was the king, who had the power to enact laws. The king was called by Kautilya as Dharmapravartaka or Promulgator of the Social order.

Eighteen Tirthas

Mahamantri Purohita Chief Minister and Chief Priest
Senapati Commander in chief
Yuvraja Crown Prince
Dauvarika Chamberlain
Prasastri Inspector General of Prison
Sanidhatta Incharge of Treasury
Nayaka City Constable
Vyavaharika Chief Judge
Mantri Secretary incharge of the office of Ministers
Parishadadhyasha Ministers
Duvara Pala Chief of the Home Defense i.e. responsible for count-rolling entrance and exit to the palace
Antravesika Chief of the Harem
Samaharta Tax Collector General
Pradeshtri Divisional Commissioner
Paura Governor of the Capital
Karmantika Chief of the industries
Dandapal Police Chief
Antapal Chief of the Frontier Defence

Provincial Administration

The head of the Provincial administration was Kumara, who was assisted by Mahamattas and a council of Ministers. The provinces were divided into divisions headed by Pradeshikas, who had no advisory council. Divisions were divided into districts under officials called Rajukas. He was assisted by Yuktas in accounting and secretary works. Districts were in turn divided into group of 5 or 10 villages headed by Sthanikas, who were assisted by Gopas. The lowest administrative unit was the village headed by Gramini.

Some of the Important Adhayaksas

Adhayaksya Rank
Akshapataladhyaksha Accountant General
Sitadhayaksha Incharge of Crown lands
Akaradhyaksha Superintendent of mines and Metallurgy
Lavanadhyaksha Salt Superintendent
Navadhyaksha Incharge of State Boats
Panyadhyaksha Controller of State Trading
Sulkadhyaksha Controller of Customs or Tolls
Suradhyaksha Superintendent of Excise 
Pautadhyaksha Superintendent of Weight and Measure
Bandanagradhyaksha Superintendent of Jails
Ayudhagaradhyaksha Ordinance of Superintendent
Kosthagaradhyaksha Incharge of warehouse
Pattanadhyaksha Superintendent of Ports
Devatadhyaksha Incharge of Religious Institutions/ Temples
Samsthadhyaksha Superintendent of Market
Suvarnadhyaksha Superintendent of Gold
Hastyadhyaksha Incharge of elephant Force
Kosadhyaksha Incharge of Treasury
Kupyadhyaksha Incharge of Forest Produce
Madradhyaksha Passport incharge
Ganikadhyaksha Incharge of Courtesan
Lakshanadhyaksha Superintendent of mint
Dhyutadhyaksha Controller of Gambling
Go-adhyaksha Superintendent of Crown herds
Lohadhyaksha Superintendent of Metal
Khanyadhyaksha Superintendent of mines
Pattyadhyaksha Commander of Infantry
Sunadhyaksha Protector of Animals
Sutradhyaksha Textile Commissioner
Vivitadhyaksha Controller of Pasture Land

Administrative Units of Mauryan Empire
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