Modern Indian Literature
In almost all the Indian languages, the modern age begins with the first struggle for India’s freedom in 1857, or near that time. The impact of Western civilization, the rise of political consciousness and the change could be seen in what was written during that time. Contact with the western world resulted in India’s acceptance of western thought on the one hand and rejection of it on the other and resulted is an effort made to revive her ancient glory and Indian consciousness.
Search for a National Ideology
A large number of writers opted for a synthesis between Indianisation and Westernization, in their search for a National Ideology. All these attitudes were combined to bring about the Renaissance in 19th century, India. But it was a renaissance in a country which was under foreign domination. So, it was not that kind of renaissance, which had spread in 14th- 15th century Europe, where scientific reasoning, individual freedom and humanism were the dominant characteristics.
The Indian renaissance took a different shape, in the context of the Indian race, moment and milieu and as a result, nationalistic, formalistic and relativistic thinking found its way into literature, which slowly turned itself into a plan-Indian movement, spearhead in different parts of the country by renaissance leaders like Raja Rammohan Roy (1772-1833), Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Vivekananda, Madhav Govind Ranade, UV Swaminatha lyer, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, KV Pantulu, Narmada Shankar Lalshankar Dave and others. The leaders of the Renaissance, in fact, succeeded in installing nationalistic fervour in the people and induced in them a desire for social reform and a sentimental yearning for their past glory.
Newspapers and Periodicals
The birth of newspapers and periodicals in Indian languages between 1800 and 1850 was extremely important for the development of prose. The emergence of prose as a powerful medium brought a kind of chance that coincided with the process of modernization.
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