Political Life:There is no clear-cut idea on the political organization of the Harappa. But if we take into account the culture homogeneity of the Indus civilisation, it can be said that this cultural homogeneity would not have been possible to achieve, without a central authority.
No temples have been found either at any Harappa sites. We have no religious structures of any kind expect for the great Bath. Therefore, it would be wrong to think that priests ruled in Harappa. Mohenjodaro has though revealed a seated image of a Priest-King. Also, the Harappa rulers were more concerned with commerce than conquests and Harappa was possibly ruled by a class of merchants. So, there is not much evidence on the political situations.
Finds of Rice were relatively rare. Evidence of Cotton comes from Mehrgarh. Lothal and Rangpur, as mentioned earlier also lend evidences of rice husks. Indigo cultivation was evidenced at Rojdi. Sugarcane, as there is no evidence yet produced, seems to have been unknown to the Indus People.
They used the wooden plough (as evidenced by the ploughed field found at Kalibangan). Reiterating, terracotta models of the plough have also been obtained from Cholistan and Banawali (Haryana). The representations of the bulls on seals and sculptures have led the archaeologists to concede that oxen might have been used for plugging. Stone sickles might have been used for harvesting the crops.
The main features of Baluchistan and Afghanistan were Gabarbands or Nalas, enclosed by dams for storing water. Channel or Canal Irrigation seems to have been absent though. Canals were only found at Shortughai and not in Punjab or Sind, indicating the usage of well water for irrigational purposes at other sites. Dholavira, as mentioned earlier, revealed water reservoirs, which might have been used to stone water.
The Harappa villages, mostly situated near the flood plains, produced sufficient food grains not only to feed themselves, but also for the town people. Food grains were also stored in huge granaries in both Mohenjodaro and Harappa and Possibly in kalibangan.
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